We are the leader in comprehensive pathology and lab services.
Commonly associated with blood testing, hematology also includes the study and analysis of organs and tissues that use blood cells to carry out essential physiologic functions. For instance, tissues and blood from lymph nodes may be directly examined to look for irregularities.
- Such anomalies may indicate that a patient has non-Hodgkin’s or Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
- This is just one example of how organ tissue testing or typing (OTT) is a vital service provided by a clinical laboratory.
Organ tissues are often tested to determine if a perspective donor is an ideal match prior to transplantation. Tests are performed to identify possible barriers to transplantation, such the presence of antigens or special proteins that indicate susceptibility to diseases that often attack the immune system. Similar testing may be done on embryo tissues used for transplantation into an ailing sibling.
Antigen Pattern Identification
Testing performed on tissues from two individuals will include an identification of possible antigen patterns. For the purposes of organ donation, the closer the match, the more likely it is that an organ transplant will be successful. Antigen testing may also be done to help determine if two people are related. Results may be used to establish paternity or find patients who are more likely to develop certain autoimmune diseases.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is done to match organ tissues to identify compatible donors based on an analysis of proteins located on the surface of cells. Testing may include typing based on antigen levels from low to high, or on the amplification of partial stretches of genomic DNA in HLA genes.
So-called “natural killer cells” are important because they kill infected or stressed cells. DNA-based typing is used to identify killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in individuals. KIR genotyping may help identify organ donors who are able to suppress virus-host diseases and fight potential infections.
PRA and Antibody Identification Testing
PRA and antibody identification testing may be used to determine reasons for failed platelet transfusions or the chronic or accelerated loss of solid organ transplants. Results can help determine the likelihood of finding a suitable donor for patients who have experienced failed transplants.
Virtual Cross Match
After a patient’s antibody specificities have been identified with other tissue testing, cross matching results can be compiled. Such results are typically used to determine whether or not a potential recipient donor will have issues with a transplanted organ.
Flow Cytometry Cross Match
This type of organ tissue testing is mainly used to determine if individuals who are donating organs are a suitable match for a potential donor. The test involves a comparison of HLA antibodies to determine the risk of damage to the graft that will be necessary to attach the organ. The odds of rejection can also be determined.
Organ tissue testing or typing is just of many essential services provided by our well-managed clinical laboratory.